Irradiating Food Irradiating fruits, vegetables, pork and chicken to kill insects and bacteria has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration over the past decade or so. Irradiation of other meats, such as beef and lamb, is being reviewed. Federal approval does not require that industry adopt the process, and few food processors presently offer irradiated products. Market studies have shown that many consumers are afraid that eating irradiated foods may cause cancer, despite scientific studies that prove the safety of treated foods. Some people argue that more severe government inspection, higher food-safety standards, and more careful-preparation practices by consumers are all that is needed to ensure that food is safe. Consequently, companies currently see no need to spend millions of dollars outfitting processing plants with the equipment necessary for a process that very few shoppers are in favor of. All supermarkets that sell irradiated food must label the food either directly on the packaging,or, in the case of bulk items like fruits and vegetables, by placing a sign nearby. There is no requirement for the labeling of irradiated food served by chain restaurants or hospitals that buy directly from distributors, nor any regulations for products that contain irradiated ingredients. Presently, the FDA allows food to be treated with three types of radiation-gamma rays, high-energy electrons, and X rays-and sets limits on doses, depending on the type of food. The principle is that the dose to be used for a certain type of food should not exceed the amount that is sufficient to kill most harmful insects and bacteria present in it. Different types of food, because of their molecular compositions, may require different doses of radiation. According to the passage, killing insects and bacteria present in foods by irradiating is not completely approved by the US government
C. Not mentioned
There are quite a number of food processors which are interested in producing irritated foods
Some consumers are doubtful of the safety of irradiated foods and suggest a more severe government inspection be taken
Some companies foresee the promising future of setting up food processing factories, although they do not see the need now
It is required that labels placed on irradiated food or nearby bulk items such as vegetables and fruits should indicate irradiated ingredients
Restaurants can serve irradiated food bought directly from distributors without labeling it
The passage tells us that FDA approves irradiating food to some extent but irradiated food is not widely accepted
The Gap of Lifespan between Men and Women
(1) People are living longer than ever, but for some reason, women are living longer than men. A baby boy born in the United States in 2003 can expects to live to be about 73, a baby girl,about 79. this is indeed a wide gap, and no one really knows why it exists. The greater longevity (长寿) of women, however, has been known for centuries. It was, for example,described in the seventeenth century. However, the difference was smaller then--the gap is growing.
(2) A number of reasons have been proposed to explain the differences. The gap is greatest in industrialized (个体的) societies, so it has been suggested that women are less susceptible to work stress that may raise the risk of heart disease and alcoholism (酗酒). Sociologists also tell us that women are encouraged to be less adventurous than men (and this may be why they are more careful drivers, involved in fewer accidents).
(3) Even smoking has been implicated in the age discrepancy (差异). It was once suggested that working women are more likely to smoke and as more women entered the work force, the age gap would begin to close, because smoking is related to earlier deaths. Now, however, we see more women smoking and they still tend to live longer although their lung cancer rate is climbing sharply.
(4) Some researchers have suggested that men may die early because their health is more strongly related to their emotions. For example, men tend to die sooner after losing a spouse than women do. Men even seem to be more weakened by loss of a job. (Both of these are linked with a marked decrease in the effectiveness of the immune system.) Among men, death follows retirement with an alarming (令人担忧的) promptness (迅速).
(5) Perhaps we are searching for the answers too close to the surface of the problem. Perhaps the answers lie deeper in our biological heritage. After all, the phenomenon is not isolated to humans. Females have the edge among virtually ( 几乎 ) all mammalian (哺乳动物的) species, in that they generally live longer. Furthermore, in many of these species the differences beginat the moment of conception; there are more male miscarriages ( 流产 ). In human, after birth, more baby boys than baby girls die.
23. paragraph 1 __________
24. paragraph 2 __________
25. paragraph 3 __________
26. paragraph 4 __________
A. Much Male Miscarriages
B. The Reason for the Gap Grows Different
C. The Greater Longevity of Women.
D. Health Is More Strongly Related to Their Emotion,,
E. Women Are Living Longer than Men
F. Example for the Age Discrepancy
27. Ababy boy live to be about 73, a baby girl, about 79, this has __________
28. Women are less likely to work stress that may raise the risk of __________
29. More women smoking and they still have __________
30. The phenomenon is not isolated to humans __________
A. has impact on
B. a wide gap
C. a longer life
D. animal species
E. different societies
F. heart disease and alcoholism
Common-cold Sense You can't beat it, but you don't have to join it. Maybe it got the name "common cold" because it's more common in winter. The fact is, though, being cold doesn't have anything to do with getting one. Colds are caused by the spread of rhinoviruses, and, at least so far, medical science is better at telling you how to avoid getting one than how to get rid of one. Children are the most common way cold viruses are spread to adults, because they have more colds than adults--an average of about eight per year. Why do kids seem so much more easily to get colds than their parents? Simple. They haven't had the opportunity to become immune to many cold viruses. There are more than 150 different cold viruses, and you never have the same one twice. Being infected by one makes you immune to it--but only it. Colds are usually spread by direct contact, not sneezing or coughing. From another person's hand to your hand and then to your nose or eyes is the most common route. The highest concentration of cold viruses anywhere is found under the thumbnails of a boy, although the viruses can survive for hours on skin or other smooth surfaces. Hygiene is your best defense. Wash your hands frequently, preferably with a disinfectant soap,especially when children in your household have colds. But even careful hygiene won't ward off every cold. So, what works when a coughing, sneezing, runny nose strikes? The old prescription of two aspirins, lots of water, and bed rest is a good place to start. But you'll also find some of the folk remedies worth trying. Hot mixtures of sugar (or honey), lemon,and water have real benefits. According to the essay, you may have a cold because________.
A. the weather is too cold
B. the spread of rhinoviruses gets people infected
C. another person's coughing passes the cold to you
D. you wash your hands too often
The best way to keep yourself from getting colds is________.
A.to keep yourself clean
B.to use a disinfectant soap
C.to take two aspirin pills every day
D.to drink lots of water