1. Listening Comprehension
3. Reading Comprehension
听力原文： How many of you read the tabloids -- you know, those gossip magazines -- in the supermarket that feature celebrity photos? Hmm, I can see by the show of hands that many of you follow this media. Well, this type of news has gained a bad reputation over the past few years -- and rightly so, in my opinion. But did you know that true photojournalism in the United States has actually had a long and respectable history? Thats the focus of our lecture today. First, lets begin by clarifying our terms. What exactly are we referring to when we say "photojournalism"? Well, its the technique of using photographs and printed stories to document current events--they balance each other. In other words, a photojournalist tells a story with words and pictures--usually candid, still pictures. The idea is to take a series of unstaged, unplanned photos--to capture people living in the moment. In any case, the whole journalistic process was made possible in the 1880s by the invention of 35mm cameras and film by Eastman Kodak Company. You see up until then, photography was a slow and tiresome process that required complicated chemical mixtures on metal plates. Not only that, the first images took 8 hours of exposure to direct sunlight in order to make a photograph! Not a very convenient technique when youre trying to photograph a war or a riot, right? So the invention of film opened up a whole new world of possibilities for the photojournalist Kodaks slogan was: "You press the button, we do the rest." And the public ate it up. They were tired of the glamorous art posters and artist engravings that had been used in newspapers up until the 1920s. They wanted to see realistic images of current events. So the introduction of black and white photos in news stories boosted the sales of newspapers dramatically. In fact ... in 1925, it gave birth to a whole era of news reporting called the "golden age of photojournalism." Some of you might remember seeing a news magazine called LIFE. It was one of Americas most popular magazines and was famous for its high-quality photos. What made it unique? Well, it not only covered the typical Hollywood gossip, but it also focused on hard-edged news stories affecting the average American. It brought the world into their living room ... as I like to say [chuckles]. The word photography comes from the Greek root "phos", meaning light, and "graphis" meaning paintbrush. So you see, photojournalists were like artists because they painted with light. And the powerful images presented in LIFE magazine clearly demonstrated that. Take for example, Lewis Hines photos of working class America. In 1908 ... Was it 1908? [false start] Yes, sorry. In 1908, he took over 800 photographs documenting child labor in sweat shops and raised peoples awareness of the abuse. In fact, his work was instrumental in changing the child labor laws. But he is probably more famous for his photos of the Empire State Building construction workers who balanced on narrow steel poles 1,000 feet in the air. His candid images captured their dignity as they labored in dangerous settings. So you see, photos were no longer just pretty pictures of the rich and famous. For the first time, the lives of ordinary people were being documented for future generations. Dorothea Lange is another photojournalist whose work had a powerful influence on the American public. She was hired by the government to document life in rural America during the Great Depression. So from 1935 to 1943, she traveled across the country taking more than 270,000 photos of families who were struggling to survive. Now, youre probably wondering how anyone could invade peoples most private moments. How could you take a picture when theyre suffering unspeakable hardships? Well, thats a challenge of being a good photojournalist. Your job is to present a fair and accurate representation of events and people. Youve all heard the expression: "A pictures worth a thousand words." [pause] Well, thats the heart of photojournalism. The pictures are meant to speak for people when they cannot speak for themselves. But the problem is that a picture could be diverted from its original purpose, that is, photojournalists have little control over how their photos are used. And this raises certain ethical issues. Think about it. With the introduction of digital photo technology, its becoming more and more difficult to know whats real and what isnt. We used to believe that the camera doesnt lie, but now its too easy to manipulate photos. So we cant always believe what we see. So where should photojournalists draw the line? Thats the million-dollar question. P Now, youre probably wondering how anyone could invade peoples most private moments. How could you take a picture when theyre suffering unspeakable hardships? Well, thats a challenge of being a good photojournalist, Your job is to present a fair and accurate representation of events and people. What does the professor mean when she says this: P Well, thats a challenge of being a good photojournalist. Your job is to present a fair and accurate representation of events and people.
What is the lecture mainly about?
A．Photojournalism as a contemporary art form.
B．The history of American photojournalism.
C．Processes and techniques of photojournalism.
D．Similarities between classic photos and photojournalism.
听力原文：S Uh, Dr. Krakow? P [Surprised] Yes! Oh, hi, Jenny! S Im sorry. I hope Im not catching you at a bad time. P Jenny, we dont call them office hours for nothing! Come on in. S Thanks. Uh ... first off, I really wanted to thank you for such an amazing course this term. Its been such a pleasure. I mean, I never really knew much about any alternative education methods, and its been a really illuminating experience. Ive become really passionate now about arts-education. I think its what Im going to write my honors thesis on. P Thats wonderful! Art Methods in Education is one of my favorite classes to teach. Uh, what, uh, specifically are you thinking about doing for your honors thesis, if I may ask? S Well, thats why Im here. I think I want to specialize in Creative Arts Therapies, and I know youre teaching a class in that next term! But the thing is Ive already filled up my schedule with mandatory classes. I cant register for any more. P Ah, I see. S I was hoping that Id be able to audit the class instead. P Hmmm, I see. Well, thats certainly a possibility. Let me tell you a little bit about the pros and cons of auditing classes. You see, in choosing to audit, you are making a commitment to do the readings, keep up with the coursework, and be a positive presence in class, in addition to doing the work for the classes you are actually registered for. It would be unprofessional of me to suggest that you compromise your other course work in order to keep up to snuff in my own class. After all, they do give a maximum-course load quota for a reason. S Right, I see. I certainly have no intention of compromising my other course work. Well, how much work would it be for me? Would I have to write papers? P Well, that raises another point actually, come to think of it. You see, some people ... not me, but some people at the administrative level mostly, feel that it is unfair to the students registered in the course to have auditors present. Sometimes, the keenest students of all are the auditors, so dont get me wrong! But if a non-registered student keeps raising his hand and asking questions, hes technically taking question-asking time away from the students who have actually paid to be in the course. This gets even more complicated if you submit a paper. Since you are not registered in the class, I technically am not being paid to read your paper. Now, of course Im happy to look at it unofficially, but if I spend too much time reading it, it means less attention is given on tile others. You see the predicament? S Yeah, I guess I never thought of it that way. P Then again, if youre going to sit in on the class, I want you to be a real presence. That means doing the readings, asking questions, being engaged, and contributing to the atmosphere of the class. Otherwise its like having a dead-weight in the room. Its a two-tiered dilemma, you see? Should you take on the responsibility of doing extra coursework when youve already got a full load? And should I permit you to join the class and give it your full energy, knowing that it might take away from the attention the registered students get from me? This is the dilemma of accepting auditor students. I uh ... I think we can work something out, but its important that I show you the lay of the land first. S Well, I think I can handle the work because Im going to be doing research into my thesis anyways. P Yes! That definitely makes things more cost-effective for you, time-wise. You will be doing the readings as research for an independent project, and the lectures will enrich your readings. That is a good way of looking at it. But what is your feeling on writing papers? Were you hoping to write a paper for this class? S Well, I was hoping to, just to learn the material better. But I dont want to get you in trouble with your union, and make you read over my work when youre not getting paid. P Well, I just thought of something. If you want to do research in Creative Arts Therapies, then since Im the department specialist, you would have to come talk to me anyway. Thats part of my job ... to meet with students to discuss their independent research. So how about, when it comes to paper-time, instead of submitting a term paper, you can submit a draft of your thesis. Or at least, you can submit me an extensive thesis proposal. S Great idea! P And that way, we can start making your thesis the best it can possibly be. I have a lot of faith in your abilities, Jenny. You were a model student this past term. Id be happy to nudge you along as you begin your thesis work. So uh ... lets leave it at this, shall we? Next term, you just show up to class, and well carry on from there! S Yes! Great, thank you for the concession. I ... uh, really do appreciate it. P My pleasure. Ill see you next fall then! Have a great summer, Jenny. S Im sorry. I hope Im not catching you at a bad time. P Jenny, we dont call them office hours for nothing! Come on in. What does the professor mean when he says this: P ... we dont call them office hours for nothing!In this part of the section, you will hear 1 conversation and 2 lectures. You must answer each question. After you answer, click the Next icon. Then click the OK icon to confirm your answer and go on to the next question. After you click the OK icon, you will not be able to return to previous questions. You will now begin this part of the Listening section. You will have 10 minutes to answer the questions.
Why does the student come to the professors office?
A．To discuss her grade in her last class.
B．To inquire about auditing a class next term.
C．To thank her professor for a good class.
D．To ask questions about her thesis.
听力原文： Hello, class. I hope everyones good today, um, Ill be covering an extremely interesting aspect of star formation today--urn, actually, its the reverse aspect of it. Umm, I want to give you a glimpse into the degeneration of stars, their slow cosmic death so to speak, yeah? Wonderful. So to that purpose Ill focus my discussion on white dwarfs and black dwarfs, and what sets them apart from the rest of interstellar objects. Um, right, so lets proceed by watching this splendid image taken from space by the Hubble telescope. Now, see that pulsating white light? Yeah? Well, thats Sirius--ah, the brightest star in our universe. And right next to it, there, to its right, did you catch that? Its a faint luminous dot. Thats its companion star, called Sirius B. It was discovered in 1862 by astronomer Alvan Graham Clark, and its the first observed instance of a white dwarf. OK. So uh, now what sets these white dwarfs aside from the rest of the stellar universe? Well, it seems they are a form. of degenerate stars, an instance of stars that are dying out. How do we know that? First, because they are so much dimmer than more mature bright stars. Urn, and second because they are also much tinier in cosmic terms, some are even smaller than planets. Like Sirius B, for instance, its barley as large as our planet Earth--and thats very small when you think of Jupiter, or Saturn, or the like. What makes these white dwarfs different though is their mass. Sirius B, for example, packs half the density of our Sun into its little frame. That makes white dwarfs the heaviest forms of matter in the universe apart from black holes and neutron stars. Hmm, so what does that mean for this celestial body? Urn, how was it possible it acquired so much mass in spite of its reduced volume? White dwarfs are the last phase in the existence of a star. So, when a star has spent all of its hydrogen to fuse into helium, it goes through a red giant phase, alright? That means it gets to shed its outer layer to create a planetary nebula--everybody familiar with that term? Perfect! So this expelling of its surface, um, that takes up lots of energy, right? The star has no more hydrogen left to sustain nuclear fusion--you know, its basically an inert core made up of carbon and oxygen, thats it, OK? Since its no longer emitting energy, it shows up like a blur on the night sky--and thats our white dwarf. Now, what happens to white dwarfs is that they start to cool down --seeing as theres no energy to sustain them. This gradual shift in temperature causes the core mass to shrink within itself--so thats why white dwarfs have such abnormally high densities. Makes sense, doesnt it? What usually happens now is that density pressure causes gravitational collapse-- or, in other words-- a giant explosion of the supernova type. I gather you all witnessed the one shown on TV just recently, right? But of course, most white dwarfs dont meet such violent ends. Actually, most of them gradually fade and burn off until they disappear completely. In this last stage, they are actually called black dwarfs because they emit so little radiation that they cant even be detected by current astronomic devices. Truth be told, no black dwarf has yet been discovered in the universe partly because the universe is still too young to produce them, and partly because even if they did exist-theyd get lost in the cosmic microwave background radiation. Um, careful here though, lets not confuse black dwarfs with brown dwarfs. Brown dwarfs are also really faint as they cant sustain nuclear fusion either, but that happens because they dont have enough mass to do so-so that is opposite to what happens in the terminal phase of heavy white and black dwarfs, OK? Brown dwarfs form. through gas accretion and contraction-they are not degenerate stars, quite unlike that actually. P Hmm, so what does that mean for this celestial body? Um, how was it possible it acquired so much mass in spite of its reduced volume? White dwarfs are the last phase in the existence of a star. So, when a star has spent all of its hydrogen to fuse into helium; it goes through a red giant phase, alright? That means it gets to shed its outer layer to create a planetary nebula--everybody familiar with that term? Perfect! What does the professor mean when he says this: P ... everybody familiar with that term? Perfect! P Um, careful here though, lets not confuse black dwarfs with brown dwarfs. Brown dwarfs are also really faint as they cant sustain nuclear fusion either, but that happens because they dont have enough mass to do so --so that is opposite to what happens in the terminal phase of heavy white and black dwarfs, OK? Why does the professor say this: P Um, careful here though, lets not confuse black dwarfs with brown dwarfs.
What is the lecture mainly about?
A．The difference between white dwarfs and black dwarfs.
B．The difference between white dwarfs and brown dwarfs.
C．The formation of massive stars in our galaxy.
D．The disappearing process of stars from outer spac
听力原文：G Hi there! Uh, looking for some help? S Oh! Yeah, I uh ... was just wandering around the campus trying to get acquainted with it. G Well, I can give you some information if you would like. Im a senior this year, and basically my job for the day is to acquaint new students with the campus ... answer any questions ... So yeah! Welcome! What are you going to be studying this year? S Ive, uh, registered as a biology student. G Great! Well um ... the natural science buildings are on the other end of campus, what we call East Campus. You must have been there already if youve registered with Biology because they have all their advising appointments there. Anyway, uh, East Campus is where all your classes will likely be, which is convenient if youre interested in i sports.., are you? S Yes, I am! Why do you ask? G Well, the athletic facilities are on the East Campus. Oh, weve got some amazing athletic facilities ... you really should see them. Two years ago we got a donation from a former student to commission a brand new athletic complex. I think the guy who donated the money was an NHL star or something ... anyway, weve got a beautiful Olympic-sized pool with a glass ceiling that lets in all the sunlight. So on a really cold exam day, you can still go in and do your laps and soak up the sunrays! Theres also a two-story weight area with state- of-the-art equipment, free-weights, and resistance machines. Oh, theres a trampoline room, which is tons of fun. A gorgeous sauna area ... oh, and I almost forgot! An indoor skating rink! Go figure, huh? It was a hockey star that donated the money for it, after all. S Wow, that all sounds really neat. I guess Ill have plenty to do on my breaks. But ... Ive heard theres an extra- curricular orchestra on campus. Where do they rehearse? G Good question ... let me, uh, look that up ... Right! Here we go. The orchestra rehearses at the Student Activities Center. Thats located on Center Campus. Oh, I remember now! Ive seen those rooms. They have tons of practice rooms for musicians. You can just go to the porters desk at the front door and leave your student card, and theyll give you a key to a soundproof module. You can go and practice your instrument, use the pianos there, whatever you feel like. And theres a large orchestra rehearsal room on the third floor. It overlooks the front field, so you can watch the football team go for gold while you practice your Brahms! What uh ... what instrument do you play? S The oboe. Do you know where I can find out about auditions for the orchestra? I think theyre coming up soon. G Good question ... Id, uh, Id ask at the porters desk at the Student Activities Center. They should have all the information there for you. In fact, they are also having an event this afternoon to welcome new students to campus. Its the annual Orientation Barbecue. Happens every year, and the orientation committee has been planning it for months. Well, since the beginning of the summer I guess ... you havent heard of it? S No, strangely, I havent. Well ... whos going to be there? G Every single club on campus will be set up in different kiosks, and they will be able to give you all sorts of information. In fact, youll probably learn a lot about clubs you hadnt even thought of! Theres a cooking club, and a hiking club, oh, and a club devoted to exploring the town for people who are new here. Theres a Latin Dancing club, a drama group, a stand-up-comedy league, tons and tons of things. Thats very odd that you havent heard about it. Every new student was supposed to have had a brochure about it mailed to them in August. S Ah, well my parents just moved in July, so my mailing address has been a bit wonky. Perhaps it went astray. But uh ... wow, its a barbecue you say? G Oh yeah! Of course, free hamburgers and veggie-dogs! The whole campus will be there. Its a great opportunity to meet new people. I was also planning to go. In fact, Im probably going to walk over there soon. It starts in half an hour. If you want to wait a bit, Ill go over there with you! S Yeah, that would be great! Dont really know my way around much yet. Thanks! G My pleasure. G Theres also a two-story weight area with state-of-the-art equipment, free-weights, and resistance machines. Oh, theres a trampoline room, which is tons of fun. A gorgeous sauna area ... oh, and I almost forgot! An indoor skating rink! Go figure, huh? What does the guide imply when she says this: G ... oh, and I almost forgot! An indoor skating rink!In this part of the section, you will hear I conversation and 2 lectures. You must answer each question. After you answer, click the Next icon. Then click the OK icon to confirm your answer and go on to the next question. After you click the OK icon, you will not be able to return to previous questions. You will now begin this part of the Listening section. You will have 10 minutes to answer the questions.
Why does the guide start a conversation with the student?
A．To invite him to a football game.
B．To see if he has any questions.
C．To ask if he would like to be a guide.
D．To ask the student for directions.
听力原文：P OK, so today were going to start on the "introduction to Trade" topic. I want to start by looking at what exactly we know about trade. What IS trade? Can anyone tell me? S Um ... well, its an exchange. An exchange of goods or services between two regions or countries. P Yes, thats right. Historically, well ... the original form. of trade was "barter". Im sure youve all heard that word before, but nowadays, "barter" is used to mean "to haggle" or "to bargain" but bartering was originally the exchange of one good or service for another. Its used a lot in societies where no monetary system exists or in countries where the economy is really unstable. Nowadays traders usually carry out transactions using some medium of exchange, such as money. OK. So we have a basic idea of WHAT trade is, but trade has become such an integral part of our society that few people stop to ask WHY trade exists. What are the benefits of trade? Why do we trade? Any suggestions? S Maybe because different places specialize in producing different products? Or because different raw materials are available in different countries? P Yes, that is part of it, but I want to think more in terms of how each party benefits from trade. OK, lets take a simple example. Imagine two men have just come adrift on a desert island. One of the men is in his late sixties, hes been ... lets say a bank clerk all of his working life and isnt particularly sporty, OK? The other guys in his twenties and has been brought up working on a farm. Hes strong, fast and well-informed when it comes to the great outdoors. The two men decide to organize the chores that need to be done. They need to collect water, build shelter, maybe go fishing and collect fruit. Its clear that the younger man can do all of these tasks better and faster than the older man. He has whats known as an "absolute advantage" in all of the activities. We use the term "absolute advantage" if a country can produce a particular product or good more cheaply than another or if it can produce more of the good than another country can, with the same resources. OK, so back to our happy campers on the island. The younger man has an "absolute advantage" and could do all of these activities single-handedly, without having to share the results. But he doesnt. Why not? S Maybe because ... well, even though the old man cant work as fast as the young man, he still contributes something. I mean, he can still help and that contributes to the overall production. You know ... many hands make light work! So the young guy could do what he was best at, and the older man could do what he wasnt so bad at. They could both specialize in one thing. Maybe the young man could carry the water and the old man could go fishing which is less strenuous. P Great, yes! Youre definitely thinking along the right lines! Lets look at that concept in more detail. What youve just mentioned there is what we call "comparative advantage". "Comparative advantage" is central to modern trade theory and is most commonly used in international trade. "Comparative advantage" is also known as "Ricardos Law" and it explains why its beneficial for two parties to trade even though one of them may be able to produce every item more cheaply than the other. Its the ratio between how easily two countries can produce different goods thats important and not the absolute cost of production. The theory of "comparative advantage" is attributed to David Ricardo although it was first described by Robert Torrens in 1815 in an essay on the corn trade, but well look at that later on. Lets consider the example Ricardo used. Ricardo used an example involving England and Portugal. Producing both wine and cloth does not require as much work in Portugal as it does in England. In England, its not easy to produce cloth and even less so to produce wine. By contrast, Portugal can produce both easily. At first glance, its difficult to see why Portugal would want to trade with England but look at it this way. If Portugal just concentrates on producing wine and produces enough to be able to export it to England, and if England focuses on making cloth and exchanges that for cheaper Portuguese wine, both countries benefit. Portugal doesnt have the cost of making cloth and England benefits from cheaper Portuguese wine. So, according to comparative and not absolute advantage, the younger man on the desert island should concentrate on the activities that he excels at and the older man on the activity he finds the least challenging. In this way, together they increase total production and decrease total labor. S They could both specialize in one thing: Maybe the young man could carry the water and the old man could go fishing which is less strenuous. p Great, yes! Youre definitely thinking along the right lines! Lets took at that concept in more detail. What can be inferred about the student based on the professors comment?
What is the main topic of the lecture?
A．Survival skills on a desert island.
B．Trade between Portugal and England.
C．Benefits of trading products and services.
D．The corn trade in the 19th century.
听力原文：P Alright, lets get going. Ah, people usually think of symbiosis as a mutually beneficial relationship between members of two species. Bees and flowers, for example, both benefit from interaction. The flowers give nourishing nectar to the bees, and the bees in turn help pollinate the flowers by carrying pollen on their bodies and fertilizing other plants. This kind of relationship is called mutualism--obviously because both species benefit mutually-- and actually is just one of many types of symbiosis. You see, symbiosis, is defined rather broadly ... to include all kinds of relationships, involving benefit, harm, and no effect at all. Lets turn to the other, ah, widely accepted types first. OK, next we have parasitism. Its easy to guess that this kind of relationship involves benefit to one species and harm to the other. Can anyone think of a parasitic relationship? S Um, a mosquito biting a person? P Uh, OK, not quite right, but you do point out a very important distinction. Parasitism involves a long-term ... and intimate relationship. Your example of a mosquito is similar to a parasite, but after it has its fill of blood, it leaves. This behavioral pattern is closer to predation, for example, say ... a wolf taking a bite out of a deer. Compare the mosquito to a tick, and I think the difference will be clearer. See, the tick takes nourishment from the host and remains, literally making a living from the host. And there are other problems with this example that I think we can get into later. Now, parasitism is different from commensalism because in the former you have some harm to the host species. But with commensalism, one species benefits, and one is not affected either way. The beneficiary organism may gain protection or nourishment. For example, various fish species dwell among the poisonous tentacles of jellyfish and anemones. The fish species are immune to the poison, and so are protected from predator species that are not immune. The hosts in these cases receive neither benefit nor harm. Every now and then youll run into a relationship that is not clearly mutualistic, parasitic or commensalistic, because observers simply cant clearly identify benefit or harm. For example, many of you have probably seen remoras, those fish attached to sharks or whales. They appear to be parasites, but it is widely accepted that they pose no harm to their hosts. Now, the remoras clearly derive benefit, in the form. of transportation, protection, and nourishment. The question here is whether they provide any benefit. Remora species eat leftover scraps, droppings, or bacteria. If the remora species eats bacteria and other parasites that threaten the host, it is a mutualistic relationship because the host is receiving benefit. OK, weve covered the major types of symbiosis. Now lets move on to some ... um, more complicated types. Neutralism is a relationship in which neither species is affected, positively or negatively. Amensalism is when one species is harmed and the other is unaffected. Here again we see some difficulty with the inability to identify harm or benefit. While it can be hard to see harm or benefit sometimes, well, its possible that there are indirect effects. Um, for example, a plant producing a chemical that kills off other plant species could be called a mensalistic relationship, but some would argue that by eliminating surrounding plants there is some benefit in exclusive access to nutrients in the surrounding soil, reduced competition for sunlight, et cetera. Similarly, it would be difficult to say that two interacting species have no effect on each other in a so-called neutralistic relationship. S Professor, then how would you classify the relationship between mosquitoes and humans? P Right, I was trying to get back to that ... well, thats a good question, and it kind of leads me to my next point. Another problematic type of symbiosis is competition. Now, I think everyone can understand that competition is a relationship where both involved species are harmed in some way, and I think most people would say that mosquitoes and humans clearly do harm each other. However, humans help mosquitoes in some ways as well. For example, humans actually create safe mosquito breeding habitats in open containers, discarded tires, bad pavement and sewers _. anywhere standing water can collect. We see in this example that there can be a lot of overlap in classification. So symbiotic relationships are not so neatly defined, and its helpful to view symbiosis with a flexible mind. P Parasitism involves a long-term ... and intimate relationship. Your example of a mosquito is similar to a parasite, but after it has its fill of blood, it leaves. This behavioral pattern is closer to predation, for example, say ... a wolf taking a bite out of a deer. Compare the mosquito to a tick; and I think the difference will be clearer. See, the tick takes nourishment from the host and remains, literally making a living from the host. Why does the professor mention a tick?
What does the professor mainly discuss in this lecture?
A．Various types of helpful symbiotic relationships.
B．Difficulties in classifying relationships between species.
C．Different types of relationships between species.
D．The erroneous popular understanding of symbiosis.
What does the professor mean when he says this:
A．The class is taking place in his office.
B．The professor is busy doing his own work.
C．The professor is able to meet with his student.
D．The student should come back another tim
Why do photojournalists prefer to take candid photos of their subjects?
A．To avoid offending people in the photos.
B．To present the subject in a favorable light.
C．To portray their viewpoint of the subject.
D．To document the reality of the event.
In the lecture, the professor describes the main characteristics of white and black dwarfs. Indicate which of the following corresponds to either category of star. Click in the correct box for each phrase.
Why does the guide ask the student if he likes sports?
A．Biology students have their own sports teams.
B．There is limited access to sports on campus.
C．The athletic center is close to the biology building.
D．There is a football game about to begin.